ERP 2.50:Openbravo ERP Glossary/zh
Openbrave ERP 术语表。这个术语表是大家合作完成的。 你可以把你觉得重要的术语加入到这个里面，和Openbravo开发团队一起
ABC classification/ABC 分类法
ABC classification is a method of dividing stock by value in order to decide how often it has to be counted. Items of high value that must be closely controlled form the A group, middle-value items are B and low value items are C. For example if a company stocks laptop computers, memory sticks and blank CDs, the computers would be classified A, the memory sticks B and the CDs C. In Openbravo ERP ABC classification is used only to determine how often the physical inventory count occurs.
ABC分类法是对于库存的所有物料, 按照全年货币价值从大到小排序, 然后划分为A、B和C三大类. ABC分类法的原则是通过放松对低值物料的控制管理而节省精力, 从而可以把高值物料的库存管理做得更好。
Amortization is a method of accounting for the purchase of large assets so that the full amount is not recorded in a single period, thus distorting profit and loss figures and other accounting information. For example, the purchase of a 10,000 euro delivery truck could be amortized at 1000 euros a year for 10 years.
Bill of materials (BOM)/物料清单
A bill of materials product is a product which you manufacture or assemble out of a number of other products. For example, a bicycle manufacturer could hold the frame, the wheels and the seat in stock. Items that form part of a BOM product do not all have to be manufactured in-house, nor do they all have to be bought from external suppliers. For example, a computer company may make and assemble the computer itself, but buy keyboards and mice from a different suppliers and assemble the whole thing for the marketplace.
The bin location is the precise location of goods within a warehouse. When you receive a delivery, you must specify where the goods are going to be placed so that they can be found again. The bin location consists of three co-ordinates, the aisle, the rack and the bin itself.
In Openbravo ERP, Business Intelligence is the process of monitoring the progress and activity of the company in terms of sales activity, movement and value of stock and productivity of manufacturing process.
Cash accounting is a method of bookkeeping in which only cash receipts and payments are recorded as they occur. Goods or services bought or sold on credit are not recorded as transactions until payment is made.
An accounting book which documents both cash receipts and disbursements.
客户，实体，集团，在openbravo里面指同一个意思，为了区别，下文我多用实体来表示它。在组织结构中是最高等级的，如同集团公司。 在 Openbravo ERP里面, 如果你的企业最高是集团公司，那么它就是集团，如果你的企业只是一个公司，没有上级的公司，那么它就是公司。一个实体不能和其他实体共享数据。 Openbravo 是可以多实例化的，就是可以几个集团同时在上面运行。如果超过一个实体同时在上面运行，那么，窗体、表、区域的设定会都一样，因为这几个定义在系统层面。
Chart of Accounts
The chart of accounts lists the accounts used by your company and gives each one a unique number. The chart of accounts is defined by the accounts schema that you upload to Openbravo ERP during the configuration process.
In Openbravo ERP a document represents the forms and paperwork involved in business processes.
For example a document can be:
- A purchase order
- A purchase invoice
- A sales order
- An expenses sheet
Some documents can be divided into different types. For example, a sales order document has the following types:
Fast moving / Slow moving
Fast moving goods are items which are sold frequently and have a high turnover in the warehouse. The speed with which items come into and leave the warehouse influence their storage - for example you may want to stock fast moving goods in the bins which are easiest for warehouse personnel to access.
IBAN stands for International Bank Account Number. It is is an international standard for identifying bank accounts regardless of their country of origin.
Just in time ordering
Just in time ordering is a manufacturing methodology whereby the minimum materials are held as stock, and items are ordered just in time to fulfill production or sales deadlines. This prevents company assets being tied up in stock unnecessarily.
Material Requirement Planning (MRP)/物料需求计划
Material Requirement Planning is the process of making sure that the manufacturing or assembly process is well equipped enough to fulfill sales, without investing too much in stock or holding stock for too long.
An organization is a subdivision of the client, which you can use to model the structure of your enterprise in Openbravo ERP. Organizations form a tree structure, with organizations on the same branch able to share data with each other, but not with organizations on different branches. You can use organizations to reflect regional divisions within your enterprise, for example company branches in Madrid and Barcelona, or functional divisions, for example Production and Marketing. Organizations can have different accounting schemas and business calendars.
The Organization Type of an organization affects how an organization behaves in terms of accounting, its business calendar and its relationship with other organizations in the organization tree. There are three default organization types:
- Organization: usually used only for the * superorganization created during the initial client setup process.
- Legal Entity: an organization which is a recognized legal corporation.
- Generic: any other organization.
For most enterprises, the three default organization types are sufficient. However, you can configure new organization types to suit your specific business needs.
In accountancy, the fiscal year is divided into periods for administrative and tax purposes. For example where taxes are paid quarterly, you could define four periods of the year coinciding with each quarter.
The physical inventory is the amount of physical stock held in your warehouses. Although you can use an ERP to keep track of how much stock you have in inventory, it's important to verify this from time to time. Over time, items may get lost, or damaged so that discrepancies occur between the levels of stock on the system and the levels of actual stock in the warehouse.
In Openbravo ERP, you can use the Physical Inventory function to reconcile the two stock levels.
A price list records the price of individual goods for sale to customers. You can create different price lists for different purposes (for example for different markets), but you can also create different versions of the same price list (for example for to give specific prices for particular customer groups).
Price List Schema
A price list schema acts as a template for price lists. Applying a price list schema to a price list enables you to price specific products, or groups of products, with specific prices for specific periods of time (for example, 20% off all christmas decorations during december).
Procurement is the process of acquiring goods from a supplier. Use the Procurement process to create a purchase order, receive the goods into your warehouse and pay the supplier.
Receiving goods is the physical process of putting goods that a supplier has delivered in your warehouse. Use the receiving process to update stock levels on the system, and identify the location of the goods so that when you need them you can find them again.
A purchase order is a request to a supplier to supply you with goods. When you complete a purchase order, you update the system to notify the warehouse that the goods are expected, and also notify the accounting system that an invoice will need to be paid.
A rebate is an amount paid by way of reduction, return, or refund on what has already been paid or contributed
A requisition is a way of notifying the buyer that they need to raise a purchase order. This could be a request to buy more stock or materials, or it could be a request for capital expenditure such as a new office computer. Requisitions are useful because if there are multiple requisitions for the same product, the purchasing department can create a single purchase order and benefit from volume discounts from the supplier.
Standard cost is the usual price that a vendor charges a customer for a particular item. The other types of price are:
- List price: the publicly advertised price.
- Price limit: the lowest possible price that a vendor can charge for a particular item.
When you are creating a pricing structure for your products, you can apply discounts to all of these prices.
A storage bin is a location within a warehouse where the material is stocked. The position of a storage bin is identified by three coordinates:
- Row (X)
- Stack (Y)
- Level (Z)
Volume discounts are discounts that are applied when a customer buys a certain quantity of goods from a supplier. For example 5% off when you buy 100 items or more.
A warehouse is the place where your stock and materials are stored, ready for production or to be sold to customers. In Openbravo ERP, delivery trucks are also treated as mobile warehouses so that you can track the movement of stock.
A withholding tax is tax on a sum of money that is payed to the government at source by the payer of that sum of money, rather than by the eventual payee. For example, an employer may withhold a portion of an employee's salary and pay it to the goverment on the employee's behalf as income tax.
Candidates for inclusion
- Document Status
- Expense sheet
- Fixed asset
- General Ledger
- Price Adjustments
- Price Lists (as in Sales Management)
- Storage Bin
- Summary organization
- UOM - Units of measurement
- WIP - Work in progress
- Work requirement